In this video we look at how to create a custom color theme in PowerPoint 2016 for Mac.
This summer I am taking the open online course on data visualization for storytelling and discovery from the University of Texas' Knight Center for Journalism and the Google News Initiative, and learning the data viz software packages Tableau, Flourish, and iNZight. Instructor Alberto Cairo called this project "a sleek and engaging data viz." It is best viewed on a desktop.
Follow me on Twitter @tj_katopis.
Presentation design for financial services, computing, and fashion clients; an annual report; logos and brand identity.
For robust project kickoff meetings, I provide here my list of questions and initial concept development exercises that I like to discuss with clients at the start of any new presentation project. A comprehensive intake process is critical for developing a design brief and scope of services tailored for a client's particular situation.
A holistic approach
I always like to think broadly at the project kickoff phase. Why has the client called in a presentation designer? What is the client’s communication challenge? What will be the scope of services? What are the project deliverables?
During this initial scoping, I try to think through the various stages of the presentation design life cycle, from concept development to speaker coaching to live support at the event. We might build workstreams around each of these stages into the project management timeline:
Design and production
slide deck and supplemental materials
exhibits, props, images, icons, infographics, maps
coordination with IT
Initial concept development
What is the presentation topic?
What is the main idea or big idea? All aspects of the presentation need to support this main idea.
Initial concept development exercise: What is the working title of the presentation?
The call to action ("CTA")
Is there a CTA? What action would the client like the audience to take as a result of the presentation? It's usually a good idea to write out the CTA at the outset of the project and return to it frequently.
As an initial concept development stage, I might ask for a 30-second “elevator speech” and listen for a clear CTA. If I cannot identify a clear CTA from the elevator speech I try to explore this further with the client.
Who is the audience? Who is the target?
What defines the audience as a group — profession, education, age, etc.? What are their distinguishing features?
How many people will view the presentation? Will there be one person in the audience? Will it be open to the public?
Will it be live broadcast? Will it be recorded and viewed by additional people at a later date and time?
Is there a specific target person or group in the audience the presenter is trying to reach? Is there more than one target?
How familiar is the target already with the topic and background? What is their current state? What challenge do they face? On what journey does the presenter want to take them? How does the presenter want them to transform as a result of the presentation?
Persona concept development exercise: imagine an audience "persona" — a fictional person who is representative of the target audience around whom to design the presentation experience.
Consider third-party stakeholders, if any. Is there a group that the presentation impacts for better or worse? Some sensitivities of which to be aware?
The presentation experience
At what event will the presentation be delivered?
Has the event been specifically set up to address the presentation topic? Is it part of a series of regularly scheduled or recurring events? Is it part of a larger event, like a convention or trade show? Is it a breakout session?
What is the venue?
Where will the event be held? What is the location? Will it be at the client location or off-site?
Will it be in a conference room? A courtroom? Ballroom? Will it be delivered from a lectern? A table?
Will there be a designated question and answer period?
When is the presentation? What is the date and time that it will be delivered? Have the date and time been set yet?
How long will the presentation be? How much time has been allotted to the presentation?
How many slides? Is there a required limit or range?
What are the chances time gets cut (to, say, 15 minutes, 5 minutes, or 30 seconds)? Best practice is to prepare for cases where time gets cut.
Who is the main presenter?
Will there be more than one person speaking at the event?
Exercise: identify everyone from the client who will be speaking at the event. Client might not be 100%-decided yet who the speakers will be at the time of the project kickoff meeting, and speaker roles may need to be further developed.
Concept development exercise: the byline. Will a name appear on a byline? Whose name would go on the byline on the title slide if it is chosen to be included? What is the name and title of that person as they would like it to appear?
Check-in on the presenters
How do the presenters feel about presenting? What is their presentation skill level? Knowledge of the material? Mental state — are they excited? nervous? Sometimes speakers are anxious about public speaking, and the presentation designer might be able to help with the jitters.
To do: Keep in mind rehearsals and other speaker prep for project timeline. To what extent will the presentation designer support rehearsals? Do the presenters need or want speaker coaching or media training?
Does the presenter like to use PowerPoint’s Notes feature? Will the presenter want to view notes on a separate screen in Presenter view? How about paper note cards?
Does the client want a particular style, say, an infographic style or specific illustration style? Would it be helpful if the client sees moodboards of various styles? Does the client have its own ideas for designs of specific slides? Sometimes I’ll ask the client to hand sketch a specific idea they have in mind with a Sharpie.
I like to ask about the client’s brand and guidelines, and design consistent with the brand identity. What is the client's brand strategy? How does the client want the market to think and feel about its brand? Understanding the client's brand strategy can help inform the visual language and the voice and tone of a presentation. Clients invest a lot of time and money in their brand identity, and in practice business development teams might not always be aware that there might already be established brand guidelines, templates, and other resources.
Assets to request from the client
Client’s "style guide" for its brand identity that defines:
- color palettes
- primary, secondary/accent, grays
- logo and usage rules
- visual language
- image treatments
Any presentation guidelines that describe layouts, treatments for images, graphs and tables, animations, footers, animations, multi-media/video, etc.
Templates or theme files
Potentially, headshots, bios, and contact information of the presenters, if needed
Icon, image, and video libraries, including subscriptions and licenses
Logo files — I like to ask for high quality vector files and high-resolution images where available.
For inspiration, I like to ask for any current or recent pitch decks, and any other material that the client likes for reference in the design — a website, annual report, print catalog, newsletter, or other print or digital art work.
What slideware is used within the client organization? PowerPoint, Keynote, Google Slides, Prezi? something else? Which version of slideware is used by each of the users? Is everyone on the team using the same subscription-based software that automatically updates to the same version?
What is the level of software proficiency of the users?
Does the client expect to be able to edit the file after I return it to them? Will they know how?
What are the types of computers and tablets of each person who will open/edit/view the file — PC, Mac, both?
It's also a good idea to start thinking about contingencies in case something goes wrong. For instance, what happens if the presentation computer fails during the presentation or gets left in a taxi on the way to the event? Does the client have a plan B?
What type of IT support will be present during the event?
What technology and equipment will be used at the event? Will IT personnel be on-site for support?
Will sound equipment be used? Will the presenter have a microphone and a PA system, and if so, who is coordinating?
Once the typefaces have been chosen, are they installed on users’ computers? Are the fonts recognized “safe fonts”? Does the client use custom fonts?
Are the fonts that will be used in the presentation document installed on all users' computers (as well as the computer which will be showing the on-screen presentation)?
Might have to plan on getting the right fonts installed, sometimes in collaboration with the IT department, or plan some other workaround.
Print or on-screen
Will the presentation slides will be printed, shown on-screen, or both? Has a particular presentation format been pre-determined? Aside from print and on-screen, formats, it is always helpful to consider alternative presentation formats. Sometimes a presentation is better as a conversation. In those cases, a deck can get in the way. Are there opportunities to break from the typical presentation experience? A flip board, a prop? Or nothing at all?
Supplemental materials, and a caveat
What supplemental materials does the client plan on providing to the audience, if any?
- other collateral
Sometimes clients plan on printing the on-screen presentation as a leave-behind for clients to reference later. Other times, the client is creating a long-form report in a slide show format that they are planning on stepping through with their client page-by-page. Neither of these approaches are usually right.
In these cases, the client expects a single document to do double-duty, first as a visual channel for a live experience that client is narrating, and second, as a stand-alone presentation that can be referred to by the audience outside of the presentation setting. These are different functions that are better handled using separate documents with separate approaches.
Consider the client's strategic design needs
It might be helpful to look beyond the current project at the calendar for the next year, and mark all important meetings, conferences, trade shows, product launches, and other events, anywhere a presentation might be given.
Are there work streams and efficiencies we can tie into the current project?
Could the project be leveraged for later presentations?
Does the client already have a working presentation template and presentation guidelines that meets its needs?
Would the client like to revise or update its existing template?
Does personnel use best practices for efficiency and impact?
Does the client offer internal training in public speaking, presentation design, and working with presentation software? Would it like to build an internal training schedule?
Here is a list of some of my favorite books and other resources — on design theory and practice, data visualization, presentation design, layout, type, color, business writing, public speaking, inspiration, and more.
Type & Calligraphy
- The Complete Manual of Typography, Felici
- Thinking with Type, Ellen Lupton
- The Elements of Typographic Style, Robert Bringhurst
- Writing Illuminating,& Lettering, Edward Johnston
- Modern Calligraphy, Thorpe
- Script Lettering for Artists, Thompson
- American Type Founders Company Specimen Book and Catalogue (1923)
Brand Identity and Strategy / Logo Design
- Shillington graphic design program class notes and handouts
- Designing Brand Identity: An Essential Guide for the Whole Branding Team, Aline Wheeler
- Manuals 1: Design & Identity Guidelines
- Trade Marks & Symbols, Yasaburo Kuwayama
- Symbol: The reference guide to abstract and figurative trademarks, Hyland & Bateman
- Logo: The reference guide to symbols and logotypes, Evamy
Presentation Design & PowerPoint
- The Presentation Podcast, hosted by Troy Chollar, Nolan Haims, and Sandra Johnson
- slide:ology: The Art and Science of Creating Great Presentations, Nancy Duarte
- resonate: Present Visual Stories that Transform Audiences, Nancy Duarte
- Illuminate: Ignite Change Through Speeches, Stories, Ceremonies, and Symbols, Nancy Duarte & Patti Sanchez
- The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint: Pitching Out Corrupts Within, Edward Tufte
- Presentation Zen: Simple Ideas on Presentation Design and Delivery, Garr Reynolds
- Building PowerPoint Templates, Echo Swinford & Julie Terberg
- Fixing PowerPoint Annoyances, Echo Swinford
- Better Presentations, Jonathan Schwabish
- Beyond Bullet Points, Cliff Atkinson
- PowerPoint 2013 Windows Step by Step Training, Noble Desktop
- MOS 2013 Study Guide for Microsoft PowerPoint, Joan Lambert
- The Transformer: Principle of making Isotype charts, Marie Neurath & Robin Kinross
- The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, Edward Tufte
- Beautiful Evidence, Edward Tufte
- Visual Explanations, Edward Tufte
- Envisioning Information, Edward Tufte
- Show Me the Numbers: Designing Tables and Graphs to Enlighten, Stephen Few
- The Best American Infographics, Edited by Gareth Cook (2014, 2015, 2016 editions)
- Knowledge is Beautiful, David McCandless
- 100 Diagrams that Changed the World, Scott Christianson
- Nick Felton's website, feltron.com
- The Big Book of Dashboards, Wexler, Shaffer, Cotgreave
- Design for Information, Isabel Meirelles
- Information Dashboard Design, Stephen Few
- Pivot Table Data Crunching for Microsoft Office Excel 2007, Jelen & Alexander
- Excel 2007 Power Programming with VBA, Walkenbach
Business Writing & Speaking
- The Quick & Easy Way to Effective Speaking, Dale Carnegie
- Webster's New World Letter Writing Handbook, Bly
- 1001 Letters for All Occasions: The Best Models for Every Business and Processional Need, Corey Sandler & Janice Keefe
- The Chicago Manual of Style
- The Elements of Style, Strunk & White
- The Blue Book: A Uniform System of Citation
Fun & Inspiration
- The Design of Everyday Things, Don Norman
- The Art of Looking Sideways, Alan Fletcher
- Understanding Comics, Scott McCloud
- Making Comics, Scott McCloud
- How to Make Books, Esther K. Smith
- Steal Like an Artist, Austin Kleon
- 101 Things I Learned in Architecture School, Frederick
- Film Art: An Introduction, Bordwell & Thompson
- Pricing & Ethical Guidelines, Graphic Artists Guild
- AIGA Standard Form of Agreement for Design Services
- Pocket Pal: The Handy Book of Graphic Arts Production
Follow the author on Twitter @tj_katopis .
As a freelance presentation designer and brand consultant, I am often called upon to help business development and consulting teams create persuasive high-dollar-value pitch decks and technical deliverables. From my view of the market, I see an increasingly robust awareness of the value that a presentation designer can add to projects. In the last few months I have worked on projects for diverse New York City-based clients, including an online investment advisor, an international auction house, a global advertising company, and a digital consulting firm. Speaking from experience, a presentation designer can elevate whole campaigns, helping teams make a greater impact through visual communications that are user-friendly and closely aligned with an organization’s overall brand strategy, and focus the audience on a clear central message and call to action.
It has been interesting to get the practical perspectives on the presentation design process of both the business development teams and in-house designers with whom I have worked on my projects. I always emphasize to both groups that presentation design is a holistic process and involves much more than working in PowerPoint (although I do a lot of work in PowerPoint, as well as Keynote, and sometimes I perform supporting design work in Adobe Creative Suite (CS) and Microsoft Office). While on-screen slides or a printed presentation deck can be an important part of a presentation (and sometimes aren't required at all), other aspects of presentation design should not be overlooked, such as concept development, brand strategy, speaker coaching, event support, and supplemental materials. Below I give some perspectives on presentation design, from the point of view of presenters and designers I have worked with, as well as my own perspective.
Generally, I find that the “presenters,” a group that usually includes client-facing teams, sales and marketing people, technical experts, and other types of professional service providers, can come to me with any level of presentation design skill (from novice to pro) and are not always well-positioned to assess their own proficiency. Leaving aside speaker ability, I have seen many business presentations that did not make good use of hierarchy, typography, color, layout, or visual language. Audiences are sensitive to subtle visual cues, and even an inadvertent change in the typeface used on a slide can suggest an unwanted meaning. These types of design issues can look unprofessional, make a presentation confusing, frustrate an audience, detract from the effectiveness of the overall message, and put a brand at risk.
I recall one time when a friend who is a consultant at a large firm proudly displayed to me on his BlackBerry device a little infographic he designed as part of a larger presentation. Here was a highly trained lawyer and international business consultant attempting to design infographics — why would his firm expect that this technical specialist, in addition to practicing in his core area of consultancy, should also labor as a professional designer as well? Keep in mind, professional services firms design and produce all sorts of pitch materials, B2B presentations, technical deliverables, thought leadership pieces, and other collateral for clients and the market.
Generally, I find among presenters a lack of understanding of the capabilities of presentation software, and therefore a failure to take full advantage its potential to communicate their ideas. Prior to my arrival on a recent project, a badly advised client was under the impression that animations and hyperlinks were not possible in PowerPoint, which resulted in a series of workarounds that complicated workflow and prolonged the overall design process.
This becomes a dollars-and-cents issue too — consultants are paid on a time and materials basis... it is much more time- and cost-efficient to team them up with a design pro.
Sometimes presenters have interesting design ideas but don’t know how to implement them. Understandably, most presenters lack the proficiency to build complex animations, create effective data visualization, and work with images, maps, vectors, and video files. I also see a lot of large file sizes and failure to make use of slide templates, which are signs that the user is not following best practices. This becomes a dollars-and-cents issue too — consultants are paid on a time and materials basis. Rather than have them wasting time clicking around in a software in which they are not proficient, it is much more time- and cost-efficient to team them up with a design pro.
In-house graphic design teams
Many of my clients have in-house graphic design teams that are called in to help with the presentation design process, usually reluctantly. In-house graphic designers implement and maintain the client’s brand identity, i.e., they design for what the market thinks and feels about the brand across all digital and print collateral. However, most designers are neither trained in presentation design nor are they proficient in the use of presentation design software.
A kind of "hands off” approach to PowerPoint among many graphic designers surprises me since PowerPoint is industry-standard for the business world, and (as may be interesting to users of Adobe InDesign, Illustrator and Photoshop) is a powerful layout tool that even has a pen tool, a type of Pathfinder tool, an eyedropper tool, and image editing capabilities. Of course, this is not to say that presentation software could replace Adobe CS. Rather, presentation software should be considered another design tool among the many tools designers have to work with. From time to time, I might do work in Adobe CS to complement my presentation design work. For instance, I might create icons in Illustrator and retouch images in Photoshop, and later add these elements in PowerPoint. When used in this way, PowerPoint plus Adobe CS can make a powerful combination. On the other hand, sometimes an in-house resource has proficiency in PowerPoint, but this is usually not a substitute for working with a dedicated presentation designer unless that resource also provides a holistic presentation design service as well.
At the same time, the design team can be super-helpful in the presentation design process. For example, in-house designers maintain brand identity and style guides, image libraries, and proprietary files such as logo designs. I consider them close allies in the presentation design process and try to minimize the impact of projects on them as much as possible, which they seem to appreciate.
I was a client-facing business consultant and attorney for 15 years prior to becoming a full-time designer. In my career I have designed and produced hundreds of print and digital pitch decks and technical deliverables, and so I always try to approach my projects in a holistic way based on my practical experience.
Today, I start any presentation design project with a detailed intake form. This structured approach helps me understand and define the expectations the client has of me, the roles of presentation team members, project timetable and milestones, and the presentation audience, venue, and format (on-screen or print), among other considerations. Some practical assessments also have to be made up front regarding what software and other technology is available and may be used for collaboration and at the event. At this early stage I also like to speak with someone from the design team to understand the client’s thoughts on brand identity and to gather up any relevant design assets, such as style guides, slide templates, and other resources. Concept development exercises early in the process are always helpful, such as creating mood boards, audience personas, white boarding, and card sorting.
I like to hear a 30-second "elevator pitch” directly from the presenter at a kickoff meeting. This helps presenters focus on their core message. Speaker coaching can be part of the process as well. At a minimum, I like to rehearse under conditions similar to the actual event to the extent possible. The presenter can also learn a lot by watching a recording of himself or herself giving the presentation in rehearsal. In some cases, more advanced coaching may be required, for instance, to get over bad habits or fear of public speaking.
Sometimes presentation designers attend presentation events to provide audio and visual support (usually larger events like multi-day conferences in a ballroom setting). For smaller events, I like to take at least a mental walk through the venue and the technology that will be used ahead of time with the client, and prepare for certain contingencies with backup plans in case something goes wrong.
Another area that is often overlooked is supplemental material — pre-reads, leave-behinds, micro-sites, and other collateral that can be tied into a presentation event or larger campaign to make it more effective. With the right materials, a presenter can generate impact before and after the actual event that is not limited to one or two hours of face-to-face presentation time.
As a final thought, organizations ought to think broadly about their overall presentation strategy alongside their brand identity strategy. For instance, since I am often called in on tight deadlines and that is never optimal, I suggest that clients look at their calendars over the next year (for important meetings, conferences, trade shows, upcoming product launches, and other events) to make an assessment of their presentation needs. Public speaking for client-facing teams can also be part of regular internal training. A well-designed PowerPoint template (along with training on how to use it) can do wonders for employee efficiency and consistency issues. Rather than looking toward just the next one-off presentation, many organizations would do well by planning strategically to take the best advantage of the opportunities their presentations provide and align resources accordingly.
Follow the author on Twitter @tj_katopis.
A 12-minute read
As a presentation designer, I've learned that having a robust intake with my clients at the outset of any project is a key to a successful outcome. In this blog post, I describe my intake process for a typical project, i.e., when a client has come to me for help designing a slide deck for a presentation that will be given at a specific meeting or event. It might be a persuasive presentation, like a high-dollar-value sales pitch, or an informative one, like the presentation of a technical analysis. As the presentation designer, I also have to think outside the deck — for instance, I have to consider the overall audience experience and what kind of preparation presenters might need to deliver successfully. My goal at the intake stage is to come away with a "design brief" that defines the deliverables, scope of services, and timeline for the project.
Since every client has different communication goals, and every designer has a different approach, rather than suggest a one-size-fits-all checklist by posting here a copy of my intake form and document request, I thought it might be more helpful to other designers to generally discuss the areas I like to address during this process. [Note: Since this blog post was originally published, I have released a list of questions I like to ask at project kickoff meetings, see my post here.] No intake form can consider every contingency. My own intake form is updated from time to time as I encounter new client scenarios. The intake form is just a tool; it can never replace a designer's experience and good judgment.
To a reader, the approach described here might seem lengthy. I wouldn't want a potential client to be put-off by thinking, "Hey, I did not think there would be so much to this." Part of my responsibility as the designer is to make the process as easy for the client as possible. In fact, the process can be fun. Sometimes we can address areas an organization did not foresee at the outset.
A note on terminology: I call this process the "intake," probably as a holdover from my legal and consulting background. In the design field, often this process is called the "discovery" phase. The intake might occur over multiple discussions, starting with the initial client contact, continue while the project is being scoped out, and should be concluded at the project kickoff meeting (or call). At the start of any project, I ask clients to organize a meeting of key players for about thirty minutes for the kickoff meeting. This kickoff marks the start of my project involvement.
Describing the scope of services
I don't assume that clients are fully aware of the services I provide as a presentation designer, so I will explain what I do up front. Explaining the full scope of my services can be a welcome eye-opener for clients. While, yes, I can design a slide deck using PowerPoint or other presentation software, I let clients know that I can help them with all aspects of the design of the presentation experience, including concept development, brand strategy, creating templates and masters, designing infographics, speaker coaching, and producing supplemental materials (all of which I touch on in this post). Some presentation designers have other focuses and specialties as well, such as their own illustration styles and large event support. I monitor the early discussion closely, looking for opportunities where the client might need support and try to co-develop with the client a game plan to address gaps.
Listening to the client
There is a little bit of an art to the intake process. The key is to always listen closely to the client. A client usually starts to sketch out relevant facts as soon as they begin explaining the project:
"We have a big sales pitch to a luxury car brand coming up, and we really want to dazzle them..."
"Our head of R&D has been given a 15-minute window to present her team's findings to the Board of Directors..."
"This is for our big annual fundraiser, the gala event and auction. We will host 250 people in a ballroom setting..."
"The local Chamber of Commerce invited us to talk about our idea for a new transportation initiative at their weekly Thursday night coffee get-together..."
I use an open-ended "tell me more..." strategy to get clients to elaborate as much as possible about all aspects that they think are important. Depending on how the conversation goes, I will scale up or down the level of detail of the discussion in various areas using my best judgment. Sometimes the client might not be ready with an answer to some of my questions right away, and we can at least start them thinking about open items. We can return to these later, after the client has given them some thought.
As an outside contractor I have to manage the client relationship, so want to get a clear picture of the client's project team and roles. On any given project, I expect one or more presenters, and possibly other key players, such as a project manager, business development folks, in-house graphic designers, and IT people. For larger projects it helps to make a team roster with designated roles and contact information.
Is there a main presenter? Who is it? Will there be more than one person speaking at the event? At the intake I try to identify everyone who will be speaking. (The client might not be 100%-decided yet who the speakers will be at this point, and speaker roles may need to be further developed during the project.)
There can be a lot of stress on presenters, so I always check in on how they're doing. Are they excited to present? Are they skilled and experienced presenters who are comfortable speaking in front of an audience? How well do they know the material? Many speakers have a fear of speaking in front of an audience. I also like to check how the presenter likes to work. Does he or she like to use PowerPoint's Notes feature? How about note cards? To what extent might the presenters need or want speaker coaching? We might later put time on the project timeline for rehearsals or other speaker prep. Sometimes a client might want more advanced media training. Note that we might need to collect headshots, bios, and contact information of the presenters later during the design phase.
I also find it best practice to specifically ask whose name goes on the byline on the title slide, and the name and title of that person as they would like it to appear. While you may or may not ultimately include a byline, this tells you who is taking ownership for the project at the client.
Sometimes the person who is managing my involvement on the project is different than the main presenter. To the extent there is any doubt, I need to know to whom I answer. Who has authority to give me directions? I also like to understand from the outset the client's preferred project management process — how do they like to work? Hand mark-ups, online collaboration, Slack? What is the process for approving draft versions? Who is authorized to give approvals at each stage?
Understanding the client's brand
Usually the client wants the presentation to be closely aligned with their company brand. Clients invest a lot of time and money in their brand and they might value it greatly. I ask about the client's brand strategy at the intake. How does the client want the market to think and feel about it? Understanding the client's brand strategy can help inform the visual language and the voice and tone of a presentation.
Sometimes a client's in-house graphic design team directly supports the presentation design project, which is great. The in-house designers are key contacts and I treat them as close allies. They directly support the brand and are typically gatekeepers for design assets that we will need during project.
I ask the client for its "style guide" that describes its design standards, color palettes, typefaces, logo usage, image treatments, etc. I'll specifically ask for the client's logo file because I don't want to be responsible for a poor-quality or out-of-date logo file that I was left on my own to find on the internet. I also like to look at any licensed or proprietary libraries of photography, video, icons, and other assets that the client keeps.
Sometimes the client has additional brand assets specifically developed for presentations. I ask if the organization has presentation guidelines (describing layouts, treatments for tables, graphs, and images, animations, footers, etc.); PowerPoint templates or theme files; and proprietary icon sets. Depending on what the client is able to pull together I might also ask for other materials that we can leverage or reference in our design (a recent pitch deck, website, annual report, print catalog, newsletter).
Once in a while a client asks me to break from specific brand guidelines and try something totally new and different. This actually makes me a little nervous, as I am not sure if the person making this request is authorized to break from their own brand guidelines. In these cases I will point out during the review phase how the design departs from standard.
Understanding the client's technology
I want to know what kind of computers and tablets everyone on the project team is using, PC or Mac. I also want to know which presentation software the client uses (e.g., PowerPoint, Keynote, Google Slides, Prezi, or something else), and which version(s). The best situation is where everyone on the team is using the same subscription-based software that automatically updates to the same version. Sometimes I might have to advise on which software package might be best for the project depending on what the client is trying to achieve. How about the level of proficiency of the users? Does the client expect to be able to edit the file after I return it to them? Will they know how to?
Managing typefaces is very important. I check whether the fonts that will be used in the presentation document are installed on all users' computers (as well as the computer which will be showing the on-screen presentation). I might have to plan on getting the right ones installed, sometimes in collaboration with the IT department, or plan some other workaround.
I anticipate at a minimum that I will receive some requested files from the client at the outset of the project, and send to the client a final deliverable, so I always confirm the client's preferred file transfer method (thumb drive, email, WeTransfer, AirDrop, shared database).
Imagine the presentation experience
I try to imagine all aspects of the presentation experience, from the perspectives of both the presenters and the audience.
What is the event at which the presentation will be delivered? Is it a meeting that has been specifically set up to address the presentation topic? Will it be part of a larger event, like a convention? Is it part of a series of regularly scheduled events? Does the event have a formal name? Who is taking care of signage, name tags, and other event collateral, if any? Is there a particular presentation format the event is using?
Has the date and time of the presentation been set? How much time has been allotted for this presentation? How many slides does the client expect to have? Is there a required limit or range that the client is required to have? What are the chances that the time gets bumped or the time is cut (to, say, 15 minutes, 5 minutes, or 30 seconds)? Will there be a designated question and answer period afterwards?
Where will the event be held? Will it be at the client location or off-site? What is the venue like? Will it take place in a conference room? in a ballroom? from a lectern? over a coffee table? in a courtroom? Will it be live broadcast? Is it open to the public?
What about the audience? How many people will attend? Is there a specific target person or group in the audience the client is trying to reach? Understanding the target audience will be key to tailoring the message and story telling. Is there more than one target? How familiar is the target already with the material? What is their current state? What challenge do they face? On what journey will does the presenter want to take them? How does the presenter want the audience to transform as a result of the presentation? Sometimes I imagine an audience "persona" — a fictional person who is representative of the target audience for whom I am specifically designing the presentation experience.
It also pays to be mindful of third-party stakeholders. Is there a group that the presentation impacts for better or worse? For example, do management, the workers, franchisees, or some other group have a lot riding on the outcome? Is there anyone who might have something to lose as a result of the presentation? There might be some sensitivities between different groups at the client and with outside parties.
Print or on-screen
A major decision the client will have to make is whether the presentation slides will be printed or shown on-screen. Each creates a different experience and has its own pros and cons.
Where the client has a preference for a print presentation, I like to agree during the intake to page size and the type of binding. I want to know if the client has printer capabilities and how it will manage that part of the process. Time for printing has to be built into the project timeline. Sometimes a client has its own 24-hour reprographics department on-site. I also ask if they can estimate the page length, and whether the thickness of the deck matters.
If the client wants an on-screen presentation, I try to find out on what type of screen will the presentation be given — projector? HDTV? tablet? self-playing kiosk? web-based learning? mobile device? Each of these has its own design considerations, such as aspect ratio and pixel dimensions.
How far will audience members sit from the screen? What are the ages of the audience members? Some presentation designers use age as a proxy for visual acuity to determine font size.
If this is an on-screen presentation, on whose laptop will it run? Who will advance the slides? Will it be someone other than the speaker? By what mechanism will the slides be advanced? By laptop? A remote? Will the presenter need the functionality to jump around the deck, or move around on the screen using a mouse? Will the presenter want to view his or her notes on a separate screen in Presenter view?
Technology support at the event
Presentation designers provide different levels of live event support. I always ask about what technology and equipment will be used at the event at least to make sure that someone is covering those aspects. Sometimes the client is all set coordinating its own equipment and IT team. What about sound? Will the presenter have a microphone and a PA system, and if so, who is handling? It's also a good idea to start thinking about contingencies in case something goes wrong. For instance, what happens if the presentation computer fails during the presentation or gets left in a taxi on the way to the event? Does the client have a plan B for when things go wrong? How much does the client expect me to cover these contingencies?
Print and on-screen decks are not the only two alternatives to accompany a presentation. I try to be open to opportunities to break from the typical presentation experience. For the right kind of presenter, a flip board can be an effective tool for delivering visual information. How about a prop — a physical object that can make a surprise appearance or be passed around in the audience? Maybe this particular presentation is better suited for a frank heart-to-heart discussion without accompanying visuals that could potentially get in the way of the overall message?
Supplemental materials: Pre-reads, leave-behinds, and other promotional
I might have a discussion with the client about any supplemental materials that they plan on providing to the audience. Sometimes clients plan on printing the on-screen presentation as a leave-behind for clients to reference later. Other times, the client is creating a long-form report in a typical PowerPoint format that they are planning on stepping through with their client page-by-page. Neither of these scenarios is usually the right approach. In these cases, the client expects a single document to do double-duty, first as a visual channel for a live experience that the client is narrating, and second, as a stand-alone presentation that can be referred to by the audience outside of the presentation setting. These are different functions that are better handled using separate documents with separate approaches.
Other alternatives for supplemental materials are available and might be more effective. Pre-read material, targeted leave-behinds, and other collateral can be tied to a presentation event or larger campaign to make it more effective. How about a dedicated micro-site with thought leadership, reference materials, and presenter bios to promote the client's promotional campaign, and business cards that feature the micro-site's url? With the right materials, a presenter can generate impact before and after the actual event that is not limited to one or two hours of face-to-face presentation time.
Timeline, content, preliminary concept development
At the intake the designer and the client should co-develop a project timeline with milestones and deadlines for deliverables. I start this process by marking the calendar with the date and time of the presentation event. The client and I can start to build a calendar backwards from that point.
Before I can really get started designing the presentation slides, I need to receive content from the client. At the intake stage, a client may be at any stage with its content, and might even continually update its content through the design process, right up until the time of the presentation event. In any case, I ask to receive the content as soon as possible.
I will also start some light concept development with the client at this stage. I might ask for the client to state a working title for the presentation. As a little preview I will typically ask the presenter to give a 30-second "elevator speech" version of the presentation. Do I hear a big idea? A clear call to action? Can the speaker articulate the presentation's main message? All aspects of the presentation will support this main message, so it helps to have clear agreement on what this is from the outset.
Whether the client already has well-developed content or is starting from scratch, it's helpful to schedule an early session (or sessions) for concept development, that might include brainstorming, card sorting, whiteboarding, and other creative techniques. We might also discuss a client's request for a particular illustration style or plan specific slide designs in concept development.
On the project timeline it is best practice to include at least two rounds of review for the presentation file. There should also be time for speaker prep leading up to the event — rehearsals and any special coaching sessions. If a question and answer session is on the agenda, time to prepare for this should be built into the timeline. Time for printing needs to built in as well.
Taking a strategic view of client's needs
If conditions allow at this stage I also like to make a strategic assessment of a client's presentation design needs. For example, I might ask a client to think beyond their next presentation and look at their calendars for the next year. Has the client planned ahead for important meetings, conferences, trade shows, product launches, and other events? Are there work streams we can tie into the current project? Could the project be leveraged for later presentations? Do they already have a well-designed PowerPoint template and presentation guidelines that meets their needs? Do personnel know how to use them? Do they offer internal training in public speaking and working in PowerPoint/Keynote to their employees? A live project becomes a potential opportunity to make an overall strategic assessment of how things are working in the organization and to plan accordingly.
Follow the author on Twitter @tj_katopis.
New York City neighborhood profile of Harlem in the style of an annual report. Typesetting sample. Blue and orange reference the colors of the City of New York. Made in InDesign. (Student work)
The design world seems big on video and animation these days. Gifs and little videos are everywhere. At design firms, I have noticed a push for designers to learn video editing.
In my professional experience as a presentation designer, I have been a long-time user of animation and transition features in PowerPoint and Keynote. In design school I learned how to make animated gifs using Photoshop for, say, digital banner ads.
For presentation designers, the recent release of the morph feature and other 3D capabilities in PowerPoint is game changing. More and more I find that PowerPoint is a stable and robust video platform. Heather Ackmann and P-Spice both put on impressive exhibitions of some of the new capabilities at the Presentation Summit in September. Also at #PreSum17, Rick Altman also gave a demo of the more-advanced capabilities of the Camtasia video editing software and put in a good word for ProShow Producer as well.
The movement toward video, animation, and 3D effects is really exciting, and I think the presentation design industry is still learning how to use the new technologies effectively and for good reason (as well as augmented reality). I can see immediate application in the CPG space and education. Alas, 3D probably won't make that financial statement look better, and too much movement can make an audience sea sick. The question should really always be whether the use of these technologies enhances the presentation's main message, whether to persuade or inform.
I wanted to get in on the fun too, so I recently challenged myself to animate a classic walk sequence using keyframe animation in After Effects with some vectors I made in Illustrator, and was able to come up with this sequence:
It’s far from perfect, but I was encouraged enough by these results, and so I took a next step deeper into After Effects with Noble Desktop’s self-taught step by step training course - check out this link for video samples of the projects in the course — including different kinds of TV commercials, promo spots, an opening credit sequence, and other clips that use some sophisticated 3D, lighting, and animation effects. Noble does a good job explaining a vast array of topics in a step-by-step way. It helps to already be comfortable in the Adobe Creative Suite or it might be a bit hard to get your hands around the interface. I was quite blown away by the vastness of the video editing and 3D capabilities, and the number of effects and presets. I would love to experiment more with After Effects, especially using vectors and type.
A digital particle wave has a clean high-tech look. This example might be well-suited as a background in an on-screen presentation template or banner ad for a technology, finance, or communications client, depending on their brand strategy. Made in Illustrator and Photoshop.
(Note: a version of this article also appeared at https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/report-from-presentation-summit-2017-tj-katopis/)
I am excited to report back from sunny skies and beautiful oceanside at the annual Presentation Summit 2017 in Clearwater Beach, where I spent a few days with some of the leading technical and creative folks in presentations. Here’s a brief dispatch of what I saw and heard there.
Attendees at this event are mainly presentation pros who want to connect and reconnect with peers, sharpen their skills, stay on top of the new technology, and enhance the effectiveness of their clients’ messaging. Attendees include freelance designers, like me. Others have their own design studios. Some run large operations with in-house departments at corporations and law firms, consulting firms, and other professional service firms. I met information architects, educators, trainers, master story tellers, filmmakers, and speaker coaches. Many PowerPoint MVPs were at the event (MVP is Microsoft’s highest civilian honor). Microsoft had its own squad of PowerPoint engineers and reps there. Software and hardware developers exhibited new tools. There were bloggers, authors, and podcasters whose work I had already long admired, like the team from Presentation Podcast — Nolan Haims, Sandy Johnson, and Troy Chollar. There was also a strong showing by the Presentation Guild, the leading membership organization for presentation designers, which also held its annual meeting during the conference.
There is a collegial vibe, with many attendees returning year after year, from around the country and around the globe. This is the fifteenth season Rick Altman has run this event; the first one was in 2003. He is the consummate conference host, and he and his team of staff and volunteers deliver a fun and well-run conference. It was my first time attending Presentation Summit, and as a newcomer I was delighted to find a welcoming environment of like-minded peers. At one point I met up with Echo Swinford and Julie Terberg, who quite literally wrote the book on building PowerPoint templates, and inquired, “Could I ask you a PowerPoint question?” to which they replied, in unison, with an upbeat “YES!”
Presentation Summit featured a varied lineup of speakers and presenters. In her Keynote Address, Dr. Carmen Simon explained her research on the cognitive science of memorability. Nolan Haims hosted the Entrepreneur’s Round Table that focused on the business-side of freelancing and running a studio. In his talk, Dr. Nick Morgan abstained from PowerPoint in favor of a flip-chart, and showed us how presentations can change the world. Fifteen-year-old internet mogul Caleb Maddix explained strategies for entrepreneurship and social media; also on hand was his dad, Matt Maddix. Sam Horn taught us her approach to designing brilliant 10-to-20 minute talks.
A wide-ranging panel discussion with Carmen Simon, Nolan Haims, and Sally Koering Zimney (of the This Moved Me podcast) considered issues facing the industry. On the topic of speaker authenticity, I will never forget Carmen Simon’s advice: “1) Be yourself, 2) Be your best self, 3) Be your best self in the service of your audience.”
I have a lot of respect for Microsoft for being present at this event and for listening closely to its power users. Dan Swett of Microsoft led the deep Ask Microsoft "guru" session with his team, with hosting duties played by Ric Bretschneider. My impression is that Microsoft is taking a constant process improvement approach to PowerPoint, and is doing a good job actively seeking feedback to root out bugs and consider ideas for new features. Microsoft’s new subscription model has been a game changer for keeping users on a consistent platform, and in the last 18 months or so they have rolled out some exciting new features, including zoom, the morph transition, and 3D capabilities. Thanks to Dan and the rest of the PowerPoint team for your tireless work over there.
There were also many terrific vendors on hand. Logitech exhibited a super-cool presentation remote, the Spotlight. Sendsteps showed off an interactive polling technology that lets audience members send real-time survey data through their mobile phones and can feed that data into a live presentation. Shufflrr demonstrated its presentation management technology that’s loaded with features. Inscale Interactive demoed some impressive augmented and virtual reality technology. There were also some nice exhibits from EcosPrez, Made in Office, PresentationXpert, GetMyGraphics by eLearning Brothers, Indezine, and Poll Everywhere.
Morning sessions and afternoon "tapas"
Morning sessions were divided into Build, Design, and Deliver tracks, and I tended to steer toward the Build sessions. Afternoons were for rapid-fire 20-minute "tapas" sessions. Echo Swinford showed, over multiple sessions, XML hacks for PowerPoint, speaker ready techniques, ways to design templates that provide instructions to users, and some neat tricks using PowerPoint’s background styles feature. Mike Parkinson (Billion Dollar Graphics) demonstrated quick and easy methods for building infographics in PowerPoint. Taylor Croonquist revealed how to unlock some of PowerPoint’s hidden features and dazzled with wickedly hot keyboard shortcuts, hacks, and tricks; I can literally perform certain functions in PowerPoint 1000% faster after watching Taylor's breathtaking moves. Lia (“P-Spice”) Barnakova, whose great YouTube channel I recommend to everybody, showed off some of PowerPoint’s incredible new 3D capabilities, as well as ways to spice up slides with ultra-chic effects. John Rahmlow of Vanguard talked about how to make presentations that work for diverse audiences. Heather Ackmann showed advanced techniques for animations for Hollywood-like effects. Rick Altman himself performed makeovers on real-live presentations.
The event also raised awareness of the devastation of Hurricane Irma that is still being felt for many Floridians. As part of the event Rick raised money for the Florida Keys Relief Fund.
Presentation Summit 2018 will be held in San Diego, September 23-26, 2018.
TJ Katopis is a freelance graphic designer and presentation designer based in New York City. He is a member of Presentation Guild. He is preparing a book on how to manage presentation design projects. Follow him on Twitter @tj_katopis.
Below, the author pictured with Rick Altman, Dr. Carmen Simon, Echo Swinford, Sandra Johnson, Lori and Troy Chollar, Sally Koering Zimney, Sam Horn, and Caleb and Matt Maddix.
I recently found a collection of old 35mm IBM presentation slides among some of my dad's old papers and things. Dad was an engineer and salesman for IBM from the 1950's into the '80's, and when I was a kid I used to love to load slides like these into the carousel of his Kodak slide projector. These particular slides probably date from the mid-to-late-'70's.
In those days you couldn't create a presentation at your own computer. The first personal computers were just starting to be invented; a WYSIWYG interface and PowerPoint would not be released until years later. Slide decks at this time were designed by corporate designers. Slides would be produced, packed into boxes, and shipped out to branches. Local branch salesmen would load these slides onto slide carousels, bring them out to sales calls, and project them onto screens that would have to be set up. Bulbs would get hot and burn out, and the fans that cooled them were loud and distracting at meetings.
Most of the slides in this collection are for a pitch for IBM 3660-series supermarket terminals (I was not familiar). I love how these slides have easy-to-read text with no bullets, there are elegant diagrams and flow charts, and an abundance of full-screen art-directed photography. Note the details like the period fashion styling and brand names, slightly futuristic corporate aesthetic, cartons of cigarettes piled up all over the place, the comparative metric of "millions of bytes per spindle", and the close-up of the "MEAT" button on the console. Notice also how some of the text slides have text that come in one line at a time on successive slides, so that the audience cannot read ahead of the speaker. There is no title slide in this group which suggests this group of slides were set-aside and unused during the presentation. Unfortunately these slides have become badly faded over time; rather than color correct these, I thought it was more interesting to reproduce them as they are, with a sort of naturally-occurring filter.
I also found a promotional button mixed into this set, for something called the IBM 3290 terminal display. I always think it is a nice idea to tie a presentation into something like a little button or physical object. Could you image you and your team wearing matching buttons to promote your next campaign?
Follow the author on Twitter @tj_katopis.
In this post we look at Joseph Müller-Brockmann's classic text, Grid Systems in Graphic Design, and apply some of its key concepts to presentation design, most notably, how readability of text plays a central part in constructing the grid. We also take a look at some examples.
The grid is the central organizing structure for any design. Newspapers, brochures, posters, websites… grid systems are equally useful for designing presentation slides. A uniform system of columns and rectangles provides a framework on which content — text, images, and illustrations — may be organized. Such a grid system is a useful aid to the designer for resolving design problems like placement and alignment.
While the grid stays invisible to the audience, the resulting layout provides consistently placed and aligned elements and helps each slide in a presentation deck look uniform. This repetition and visual consistency creates expectations in the viewer and subtle visual cues that facilitate communication by the presenter and understanding by the audience.
Have you ever seen a presentation in which the header changes position slightly from one slide to the next, or content strays into margin areas? Audiences are sophisticated and can sense when a presentation’s own grid system has not been respected, even if they might not be able to explain exactly why something seems “off”. A failure to adhere to the grid can potentially distract, frustrate, and even antagonize an audience. When elements drift from one slide to the next or seem to be haphazardly placed, an audience might start to question a presenter’s attention to detail, organization skills, and even his or her credibility.
With presentation design in mind, I recently re-read the classic Grid Systems in Graphic Design by Joseph Müller-Brockmann (1914-1996). By way of background, Müller-Brockmann was a leading practitioner of Swiss Style and the European design consultant for IBM. (On a personal note, my own father worked for IBM as a consultant and salesman from the ’50’s through the ’80’s, and growing up I became familiar with this kind of corporate design aesthetic, with decades’ worth of dad’s corporate journals, manuals and other materials piled up in our home library.)
Originally published in 1981, Grid Systems in Graphic Design primarily considers layout systems of printed materials. On review, it is easy to see that many of its core principles apply equally to presentations, both on-screen and print. Presentations lend themselves particularly well to grid systems. In PowerPoint, slide templates based on the grid can easily be created to ensure consistency throughout.
Readability: type size, column length, leading
How do we construct a suitable grid system to lay out a presentation? How many columns should we use? How wide should our columns be? Grid Systems in Graphic Design starts by establishing some baseline principles for readability. For Müller-Brockmann, readability is key. “Anything that might impair the rhythm of reading should be scrupulously avoided,” the author writes. “Every difficulty standing in the reader's way means loss of quality in communication and memorability… The reader should be able to read the message of a text easily and comfortably.“
So how can presenters achieve maximum readability? For Müller-Brockmann, the answer starts baseline typographic principles. He begins this inquiry by reviewing printed paper sizes, systems for measuring type, and classic typeface alphabets (his description of point sizes for measuring type is particularly edifying).
Having laid out these basics, he moves on to further elaborate on rules for sizing type, line length, and leading (i.e., the vertical distance from line to line). Müller-Brockmann does not prescribe an optimal point size to be used when determining type size. He notes that printed matter is generally read with the eye at a distance of 30-35 centimeters, and that the size of the type should be calculated with this distance in mind. He advises that text should be “agreeable” to read at this distance. “Both too small and too large a type costs the reader an effort. He tires more rapidly.”
In design school we learned as a rule of thumb that body copy should generally be 8-10 points in size. In the presentation context, such a rule of thumb doesn’t really work as a practical matter. Laying out text on a presentation slide is much different than laying out type in a brochure. Point sizes are fixed measurements, like centimeters or inches. Slides are designed to be scaled up or down to the size of whatever format on which they may be produced. If we scale a fixed length, say an inch, up or down in size, e.g., up using a giant screen using a projector or down to fit a piece of printer paper, does the inch as a measurement continue to be meaningful (other than relative to its own scale)?
When setting up a new document in PowerPoint, generally people choose an aspect ratio, typically 16:9 or 4:3, without any regard to the dimensions of the document in inches or centimeters. It would probably surprise most users of PowerPoint that the default size for a 16:9 presentation is 13.33” by 7.5”, and for a 4:3 presentation it is 10” by 7.5”. These are not standard paper sizes, and they become irrelevant when the presentation is scaled up or down in size.
As an aside, a lot of designers miss that PowerPoint is a powerful layout tool. Presentation dimensions may be customized in PowerPoint to fit a standard letter or legal paper size. The size of a presentation in PowerPoint can be customized under File > Page Setup; you can also change the page orientation from landscape to portrait here, which creates interesting possibilities for various printed layouts like corporate reports.
I have heard different rules of thumb for determining the right point size for presentations. I once worked for a partner at a consulting firm who required that reports to clients use font sizes no smaller than 14 points. Guy Kawasaki recommends that a PowerPoint presentation should contain no font smaller than 30 points. Guy also recommends determining the minimum point size by taking the age of the oldest member of the audience and dividing it by two. In her book slide:ology, Nancy Duarte recommends testing for readability by viewing the PowerPoint file in slide sorter view and looking at the slides at 66% size. To test the readability of type from the back of a conference room, Nancy also advises standing the number of feet from your computer screen that the screen measures diagonally in inches. David Paradis has developed various tables to determine the right font size that take into account aspect ratio, screen screen, and distance from the screen (these may be found here).
At the outset of every project, I ask my client if he or she intends their presentation to be on-screen or printed. If on-screen, I try to ascertain the aspect ratio of the screen to be used, screen size, and how far away the audience will be. I also consider age of the audience as a proxy for visual acuity. If the presentation is to be printed I try to determine the best printed size for them, usually letter or legal size, and set up the dimensions of the document to actual size so there is no scaling up or down of the document at the time of production.
Once we have established a type size for our project that an audience will be comfortable with, we can consider column length, which can now be easily determined. “According to a well-known empirical rule there should be 7 words per line for a text of any length. If we want to have 7-10 words per line, the length of the line can be readily calculated,” Müller-Brockmann explains. With regard to leading, he warns that lines that are too narrowly or too widely set distracts and fatigues the reader, thereby impairing reading. He accompanies his explanation with a series of illustrated examples of to demonstrate leading that is too close, too wide, and just right.
Constructing the grid
Having determined the right size font, line length, and leading, we can proceed to constructing the grid. The right grid system will depend on the amount and nature of the content to be accommodated. “Before the type area can be determined, the designer must know how much text and illustrative matter must be accommodated in the printed work he has to design and of what nature it is,” the author writes. “Just as every problem is novel and different from others, so the grid must be conceived afresh every time so as to meet requirements."
Following these basic rules, he then provides examples of various layouts using different grid systems on A4 format paper — 2 columns by 4 rows, 4-by-5, and 4-by-8. He then considers and provides some tips on laying out photos and illustrations in grid systems. Next he provides many real-life examples of how various grid systems have been deployed in various contexts. Finally, he ends the book by considering the grid in corporate identity, how it may be used in three-dimensional design, and systems of order in ancient and modern times.
With all this in mind, there are many possibilities for grid systems to accommodate different presentation needs and content. PowerPoint's default slide masters provide templates for both one-column and two-column layouts; rarely will these accommodate the content for any given presentation without at least some tailoring.
On one of my recent projects, the client, a luxury footwear company, wanted to include dozens of beautiful product shots in a presentation. We ended up using a grid system of 8 columns by 4 rows. Müller-Brockmann might call this a “fine-meshed” grid; the more fine-meshed the grid, the more flexibility it has to accommodate text boxes and images of various sizes. A grid system like this provides many design possibilities. Any image could be scaled up or down and/or cropped to fit any combination of row height and column width, or even extend from edge-to-edge for a full-bleed treatment. This particular presentation ended up resembling the brand’s product catalog, which was the desired effect.
On the other end of the spectrum, I recently saw an educator give an effective presentation using a simple one-column grid with no header space for her content, which consisted of no more than a few words of text per slide, set in a bold display type for maximum readability.
There are many more variations. For more examples, Nancy Duarte’s slide:ology provides examples of three, four, and five-column grids, as well as a Fibonacci grid (link here).
Follow the author on Twitter @tj_katopis.
Here is a little fun with PowerPoint, a recreation of a beautiful recent Bloomingdale's print ad that captivated me. A study in neon and light. I enjoyed making this piece is in portrait view, which users of PowerPoint probably don't take advantage of enough.
Follow the author on Twitter @tj_katopis.
Here I tried to recreate part of the opening of Stranger Things using PowerPoint, and drew further inspiration from the terrific website makeitstranger.com. I had seen the famous type designer Ed Benguiat give a little talk at Art Directors Club some months ago and I was reminded that the Stranger Things opening used the typeface Benguiat, designed by and named after Ed, same as the Choose Your Own Adventure books that I loved as a kid. All animations in PowerPoint.
Follow the author on Twitter @tj_katopis.
Here is a little icon I recently designed in Adobe Illustrator to represent the US Border Patrol on a bar chart. The design was inspired by the style of influential designer Marie Neurath (1898-1986). In the course of some recent design work I had read "The transformer: principles of making Isotype charts” (Hyphen Press, 2009), a biography of Otto Neurath and Marie Neurath with essays by Marie on their visual work, called Isotype, a picture language consisting of stylized symbols to represent sociological, economic, and scientific data.
By way of background, Otto Neurath was an Austrian philosopher who set up a graphic design agency in Vienna in the mid-1920’s. The principal designer of this studio was Marie Reidemeister. She used the term “transformer” to describe her design work, i.e., the process of putting information to visual form. In the 1930’s the two fled the rise of Austrian fascism to the Netherlands and later to the UK where they continued their work at Oxford. They married in 1941, when Marie took the last name Neurath. Following Otto’s death in 1945, Marie continued the work of Isotype and was a prolific author until her retirement in 1971.
Some personal projects here. I enjoy portraits, hand lettering, paper folding and sculpture, and other little visual experiments.
Digitizing old 35mm photographic slides can give otherwise forgotten photography a second life. Film slides can have incredible detail, and the reveal can be quite a surprise. From time to time I convert a hoard of old photographic slides to digital. Here's my improvised DIY process. Of course, if you have the time and money, the easiest way to do this is probably to ship yours out to a professional service provider and have them do it. Lately I have noticed reasonable prices for this service, although I don't have experience working with a service provider.
While there are many ways to digitize slides, the method I explain here – photographing them using a light box to hold and illuminate them – works best for me when I want to quickly convert a few hundred slides. It's based on equipment I already have in my studio, gives me an efficient workflow, and requires minimal retouch after shooting. It also gives me sufficient resolution for my own printing and display purposes. There are other methods that are much more time consuming and might require specialized equipment that I don’t have in my studio but can result in higher resolution images. Higher resolutions may be required for certain types of projects, but also carry the down side of larger file sizes.
Surprisingly, my scanner was not the right solution for me
Initially, I wanted to use my reliable flat-bed scanner to do the job. It came with a slide holder that snaps in place on to the glass and is used specifically for this purpose, but scanning this way ended up taking too long and was not practical. The slide holder holds only four slides at a time, and each pass at full resolution takes over two minutes. Loading and unloading the slide tray was also extremely fiddly. I love my scanner, it’s a real workhorse, but using my scanner this way was just not going to be the right solution here.
Using my camera with a light box
As an alternative, I developed a process to individually photograph each slide using my Nikon DSLR with the aid of a light box. To maximize resolution I get my camera close to the slide and fill the camera’s viewfinder with the slide image as much as possible so that I don’t have to crop out the cardboard or plastic border around the image later. Having good resolution on your camera’s digital sensor is super helpful here. The current version of my camera has a 24 megapixel sensor, and I estimate it would yield a maximum ppi of over 6000, which is huge. (My older camera has a 12.3 megapixel sensor and I estimate a maximum ppi of around 2800, assuming no cropping, which is pretty good for how I use these images.)
To hold and illuminate each slide, I set them against a light box propped up almost vertically on my easel. I happened to have a pretty decent light box from an old animation project on hand. A light box can shine a lot of bright white light through the slide while it is being photographed, which is ideal (and basically the same way a scanner or copy machine works). On the light box I set a little strip of wood with markings to ensure consistent positioning each time. (Prior to arriving at this set up, I tried photographing using a hand-held slide viewer to hold and illuminate the slides, but I was concerned about the quality of the built-in lens on mine and the possibility of vignetting. I also considered projecting the slides onto a screen and photographing those, but I did not want to rely on a 40 year old slide projector.)
To minimize camera shake I set up my camera up on a tripod. I position the camera close the slide so that the image of the slide fills the frame as much as possible, but is far enough away to allow the camera to focus. The lens that works best for me is my 18-55 mm lens, set at 55mm focal length. I attach a 10+ macro lens which lets me just about fill the entire frame with the slide image. (You can also a combine a series of macro lenses – I have previously attached a stack of macro lenses in the series +4, +2, and +1, with +1 attached closest to the camera and +4 closest to the subject.)
Camera settings are pretty straightforward.
- I use aperture priority mode. Normally with a macro lens you want a maximum depth of field and would use a small lens aperture (denoted with a larger number – f/22 is a pin hole, f/2.0 is quite large). However, since the slide we are photographing is flat, maximizing depth of field is not really an issue here. I set the aperture wide, to its second-largest opening (lenses can be susceptible to vignetting at their most-open setting). On my lens, fully extended to 55mm, the largest the aperture can get is f5.6, so I take it to the next click down to f/6.3.
- There is plenty of light coming from the light box, so I can turn up the sensitivity on my ISO (i.e., to a low number, 200 or less) and get a lot of detail.
- Since the camera is stabilized on a tripod, shutter speed is not really an issue. To minimize potential camera shake further, I use a remote shutter release so that I did not have to touch the camera at all while shooting. With the camera so stabilized, how long the shutter stays open is not really an issue.
After my camera and light box are set up, I position the first slide and focus the camera. Once the camera is focused to the first slide it does not need to be refocused, so I turn the lens to manual focus mode and the camera won't make any additional automatic adjustments while I am shooting. I manually “advance” the slides, placing, photographing, and setting aside each one. I keep the remote trigger in my hands as I move the slides, and snap the photo as soon as the next slide is in position. I can move through a stack of slides pretty quickly like this.
Once the slides are photographed, I transfer them to an external hard drive that I use exclusively as a photo archive. I crop and do light retouch in Adobe Lightroom (mainly white balance and color). There are macros you can set up to automate some of these steps in Lightroom. Finally, I safely store the old slides in proper file boxes.
Note on equipment used: My camera is a Nikon D5000 and the lens is a Nikor DX AF-S 18-55mm 1:3.5-5.6G. I use a Hoya 10+ macro close up lens. My light box is a Huion Tracing Light Box (19"L x 14"W, with a black frame). I store old slides using Archival Methods slide file boxes.
Follow the author on Twitter @tj_katopis.
Brand identity, logos, a brochure, apps, events, a book cover, package design, responsive websites, stationery set and business cards, various collateral and rollout. Made in Adobe Creative Suite.